Subject: [vedic-astrology] Re: Baadhak Sthan
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To understand badhaka sthana, one has to look at the definition closely. Why 11th, 9th and 7th houses for movable, fixed and dual signs?
Badhaka sthana is like an inherent weakness that troubles one and can destabilize the personality.
Movable signs have a lot of rajas (energy). The 11th house is the house of gains and fulfilment of desires and it has the potential to drive a person of active and dynamic disposal to an extreme and test. Such a dynamic person should watch out against the tendency to become fickle-minded while pursuing multiple gains.
Fixed signs have more tamas and are fixed in nature. The 9th house is the house of dharma (duty) and it has the potenital to put a person of rigid and strong temperament to test. Such a rigid person should watch out against the tendency to become dogmatic about one's dharma.
While movable signs are dynamic and fixed signs are rigid, dual signs are flexible and able to adopt. The 7th house is of relationships and it can push those flexible people to test. Such people should watch out against the tendency to be ambivalent in relationships.
Thus, badhaka sthana shows the forces that can make a dynamic person fickle-minded, a rigid person dogmatic and a flexible person ambivalent.
If you understand the basic reasoning, you will realize that badhaka concept is sometimes overrated and wrongly used for every problem under Sun. If you understand the concept and the logic, you will be able to judge all the factors at play in an individual chart intelligently and judge appropriately.
Anyway, having explained my take on the philosophy behind this concept in detail, I will briefly answer your specific questions.
 These are the houses that present particular challenges to the person and tend to destabilize the personlity in extreme cases. These houses stand for disturbances in life that come from within and without any apparent reason. One should guard against these challenges.
 Lord is more important. The ownerships of a planet decide its agenda. The placement of a planet decides the resources at its disposal as it finds a way to push its agenda.
 Results of badhaka sthana can be given in mahadasa or antardasa.